|Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily
Tue, 17 Oct 2017 03:24:03 EDT
Tweeting rage: How immigration policies can polarize public discourse
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 14:48:44 EDT
A study of tweets in the months before and after the 2010 passage of Arizona's "show me your papers" law, findings showed that the average tweet about Mexican immigrants and Hispanics, in general, became more negative. Researchers said the social media data was useful in determining whether people had changed their attitudes about immigrants as a result of the law or whether they had begun behaving differently.
Brain training shows promise for patients with bipolar disorder
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 13:27:56 EDT
Computerized brain training can result in improved cognitive skills in individuals with bipolar disorder, researchers have discovered for the first time.
Catch a fleeting kilonova
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 13:26:54 EDT
Alerted by the first-ever gravitational waves caused by two neutron stars merging, astronomers detect the resulting optical flash.
Toward efficient high-pressure desalination
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 13:26:50 EDT
One of the biggest operational challenges for desalination plants is the fouling of membranes by microbes. New research suggests a novel approach to reducing the rate of fouling, and thus improving desalination plant efficiency.
Chemical treatment improves quantum dot lasers
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 13:26:44 EDT
One of the secrets to making tiny laser devices such as opthalmic surgery scalpels work even more efficiently is the use of tiny semiconductor particles, called quantum dots. In new research the ~nanometer-sized dots are being doctored, or 'doped,' with additional electrons, a treatment that nudges the dots ever closer to producing the desired laser light with less stimulation and energy loss.
Neutrons observe vitamin B6-dependent enzyme activity useful for drug development
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:44:40 EDT
Scientists have performed neutron structural analysis of a vitamin B6-dependent protein, potentially opening avenues for new antibiotics and drugs to battle diseases such as drug-resistant tuberculosis, malaria and diabetes. Specifically, the team used neutron crystallography to study the location of hydrogen atoms in aspartate aminotransferase, or AAT, an enzyme vital to the metabolism of certain amino acids.
Auto-fix tool gets more programmers to upgrade code, study finds
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:21:45 EDT
Failure to make necessary upgrades to software code can have dire consequences, such as the major data breach at Equifax. A recent study finds that auto-fix tools are effective ways to get programmers to make the relevant upgrades -- if programmers opt to use them.
Seeing the light of neutron star collisions
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:21:35 EDT
When two neutron stars collided on Aug. 17, a widespread search for electromagnetic radiation from the event led to observations of light from the afterglow of the explosion, finally connecting a gravitational-wave-producing event with conventional astronomy using light, according to an international team of astronomers.
Marketing study examines what types of searches click for car buyers
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:21:30 EDT
A new study examines how consumers allocated their time when searching offline and on the internet as they shopped for a new automobile, and what the outcomes were for price satisfaction.
Nanoantenna arrays power a new generation of fluorescence-based sensors
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:21:20 EDT
Researchers have designed and tested a series of plasmonic nanoantenna arrays that could lead to the development of a new generation of ultrasensitive and low-cost fluorescence sensors that could be used to monitor water quality.
Hubble observes source of gravitational waves for the first time
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:21:15 EDT
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has observed for the first time the source of a gravitational wave, created by the merger of two neutron stars. This merger created a kilonova -- an object predicted by theory decades ago -- that ejects heavy elements such as gold and platinum into space. This event also provides the strongest evidence yet that short duration gamma-ray bursts are caused by mergers of neutron stars.
Gravitational waves plus new clues from space reveal new way to make a black hole
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 10:28:38 EDT
For the first time, scientists have detected both gravitational waves and light shooting toward our planet from the birthplace of a new black hole created by the merger of two neutron stars. The discovery marks the beginning of a new era of
Gamma-ray burst detection just what researchers exclusively predicted
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 10:28:28 EDT
More than a month before a game-changing detection of a short gamma-ray burst, scientists predicted such a discovery would occur.
Radio 'eyes' unlocking secrets of neutron-star collision
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 10:28:25 EDT
When a pair of superdense neutron stars collided and potentially formed a black hole in a galaxy 130 million light-years from Earth, they unleashed not only a train of gravitational waves but also an ongoing torrent of radio waves that are answering some of the biggest questions about the nature of such a cataclysmic event.
Astronomers strike cosmic gold, confirm origin of precious metals in neutron star mergers
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 10:28:22 EDT
What many thought would be a long way off, the detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron stars, actually happened on Aug. 17. The observation of a blue and then red glow from the radioactive debris cloud left behind matched simulations of what the merger should look like, proving that such mergers are the source of most of the very heavy elements in the universe, including gold.
First observations of merging neutron stars mark a new era in astronomy
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 10:28:02 EDT
After LIGO detected gravitational waves from the merger of two neutron stars, the race was on to detect a visible counterpart, because unlike the colliding black holes responsible for LIGO's four previous detections, this event was expected to produce an explosion of visible light. Researchers have now found the source of the gravitational waves, capturing the first images of the event with the Swope Telescope in Chile.
Quantum simulator: First functioning component
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 09:24:45 EDT
Hurricanes, traffic jams, demographic development – to predict the effect of such events, computer simulations are required. Many processes in nature, however, are so complicated that conventional computers fail. Quantum simulators may solve this problem. One of the basic phenomena in nature is the interaction between light and matter in photosynthesis. Physicists have now made a big step towards quantum mechanics understanding of plant metabolism.
How scientists used NASA data to predict the corona of the Aug. 21 Total Solar Eclipse
Sat, 14 Oct 2017 11:17:43 EDT
When the total solar eclipse swept across the United States on Aug. 21, 2017, NASA satellites captured a diverse set of images from space. But days before the eclipse, some NASA satellites also enabled scientists to predict what the corona -- the Sun's outer atmosphere -- would look like during the eclipse, from the ground. In addition to offering a case study to test our predictive abilities, the predictions also enabled some eclipse scientists to choose their study targets in advance.
Detailed look at 2-D structure of turbulence in tokamaks
Sat, 14 Oct 2017 11:17:36 EDT
A key hurdle for fusion researchers is understanding turbulence, the ripples and eddies that can cause the superhot plasma that fuels fusion reactions to leak heat and particles and keep fusion from taking place. Comprehending and reducing turbulence will facilitate the development of fusion as a safe, clean and abundant source of energy for generating electricity from power plants around the world.
Solar research: NASA sounding rocket instrument spots signatures of long-sought small solar flares
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 14:03:36 EDT
Like most solar sounding rockets, the second flight of the FOXSI instrument -- short for Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager -- lasted 15 minutes, with just six minutes of data collection. But in that short time, the cutting-edge instrument found the best evidence to date of a phenomenon scientists have been seeking for years: signatures of tiny solar flares that could help explain the mysterious extreme heating of the Sun's outer atmosphere.
Astronomers find potential solution into how planets form
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 12:32:05 EDT
The quest to discover how planets found in the far reaches of the universe are born has taken a new, crucial twist.
Spin current detection in quantum materials unlocks potential for alternative electronics
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 12:31:59 EDT
A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. A team of scientists has developed an innovative microscopy technique to detect the spin of electrons in topological insulators, a new kind of quantum material that could be used in applications such as spintronics and quantum computing.
Solar research: On the generation of solar spicules and Alfvenic waves
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 12:31:26 EDT
Combining computer observations and simulations, a new model shows that the presence of neutrals in the gas facilitates the magnetic fields to penetrate through the surface of the Sun producing the spicules.
First atomic structure from cryo-EM facility
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:33:23 EDT
Researchers have outlined a 3-D atomic structure of the ion channel found in mammals that is implicated in a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease in humans.
Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:52:34 EDT
While it's true that space radiation is one of the biggest challenges for a human journey to Mars, it's also true that NASA is developing technologies and countermeasures to ensure a safe and successful journey to the red planet.
Purple power: Synthetic 'purple membranes' transform sunlight to hydrogen fuel
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:19:55 EDT
A new way has been found to produce solar fuels by developing “synthetic purple membranes.” These membranes involve an assembly of lipid nanodiscs, man-made proteins, and semiconducting nanoparticles that, when taken together, can transform sunlight into hydrogen fuel.
Star Dust Helps Explain Mysterious Dimming Star
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:19:51 EDT
Astronomers are working to understand the mysterious dimming of Tabby's Star. The astronomers report that space dust orbiting the star -- not alien megastructures -- is the likely cause of the star's long-term dimming.
Wildlife in the ditches need a detox cure
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:17:08 EDT
When it's raining on the roads, slops of road dust and contaminants drain into the road trenches. What does it do to wildlife living by the road?
DISTRO: Researchers create digital objects from incomplete 3D data
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:17:02 EDT
Depth sensors, such as those of the Microsoft Kinect, are very powerful, but unfortunately they do not work equally well on all materials, which leads to noisy data or even missing measurements.
Cold molecules on collision course
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:15:33 EDT
Using a new cooling technique scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
New insight into the limits of possible life on Mars
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:10:28 EDT
Researchers investigating whether liquid water could exist on Mars have provided new insight into the limits of life on the red planet.
Single photon reveals quantum entanglement of 16 million atoms
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:10:23 EDT
Quantum theory predicts that a vast number of atoms can be entangled and intertwined by a very strong quantum relationship even in a macroscopic structure. Until now, experimental evidence has been mostly lacking, despite recent advances have shown the entanglement of 2,900 atoms. Scientists recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimeter crystal.
Tweets can help predict the outcome of soccer matches
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 20:02:31 EDT
Twitter activity can help predict the result of soccer matches when combined with betting market prices, new study shows. The tone of Twitter posts can predict when a team is more likely to win and soccer bets are mispriced, the study found.
Direct Numerical Simulations enhance combustion efficiency, reduces pollution
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 20:02:26 EDT
Researchers use Direct Numerical Simulations to enhance efficiency, reduce pollution in diesel engines.
Mantis shrimp-inspired camera enables glimpse into hidden world
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 20:02:24 EDT
By mimicking the eye of the mantis shrimp, researchers have developed an ultra-sensitive camera capable of sensing both color and polarization. The bioinspired imager can potentially improve early cancer detection and help provide a new understanding of underwater phenomena, the researchers said. See a video of describing the study on YouTube.
Converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using water, electricity
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 20:02:18 EDT
Researchers have determined how electrocatalysts can convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using water and electricity. The discovery can lead to the development of efficient electrocatalysts for large scale production of synthesis gas -- a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Understanding rare Earth emulsions
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 20:02:15 EDT
Through a series of theoretical simulations, researchers discovered that surface polarization in mixed media increases attraction among elements.
Intense storms batter Saturn’s largest moon, scientists report
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 17:25:01 EDT
Titan, the largest of Saturn's more than 60 moons, has surprisingly intense rainstorms, according to research by a team of UCLA planetary scientists and geologists. Although the storms are relatively rare -- they occur less than once per Titan year, which is 29 and a half Earth years -- they occur much more frequently than the scientists expected.
Finally! A solution to office thermostat wars
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 16:40:07 EDT
A new method has been proposed that simultaneously optimizes individual office workers' productivity and energy consumption costs by automating the control of indoor environmental conditions including air quality, temperature and lighting.
New headway in desalination technology
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 16:40:01 EDT
Engineers have taken a step forward in developing a saltwater desalination process that is potentially cheaper than reverse osmosis and borrows from battery technology. In their study, the researchers are focusing on new materials that could make desalination of brackish waters economically desirable and energy efficient.
International team reconstructs nanoscale virus features from correlations of scattered X-rays
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 15:18:06 EDT
Key algorithms have been developed which helped scientists achieve a goal first proposed more than 40 years ago -- using angular correlations of X-ray snapshots from non-crystalline molecules to determine the 3-D structure of important biological objects.
Satellites map photosynthesis at high resolution
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:34:07 EDT
Life on Earth is impossible without photosynthesis. It provides food and oxygen to all higher life forms and plays an important role in the climate system, since this process regulates the uptake of carbon dioxide from the Earth's atmosphere and its fixation in biomass. However, quantification of photosynthesis at the ecosystem-to-global scale remains uncertain. Now an international team of scientists have made a major step forward.
Measurement promises complete picture of Milky Way
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:34:05 EDT
Distance measured out to the far side of our Milky Way means that radio astronomers now can work on producing an accurate map of the full extent of our galaxy's structure for the first time.
In a first for wearable optics, researchers develop stretchy fiber to capture body motion
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:33:56 EDT
New research offers the first demonstration of optical fibers sturdy enough to sense a wide range of human motion.
Spotting the spin of the Majorana fermion under the microscope
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:33:34 EDT
Using a new twist on a technique for imaging atomic structures, researchers have detected a unique quantum property of the Majorana fermion, an elusive particle with the potential for use in quantum information systems.
Laser cavities take on new shapes and functionalities
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:33:20 EDT
Researchers have demonstrated the first laser cavity that can confine and propagate light in any shape imaginable, even pathways with sharp bends and angles. The new cavity, called a topological cavity, could enable laser components to be packed more densely on a chip, leading to higher speed optical communication technologies that can be fabricated in an efficient and scalable manner using photonic integration techniques.
Engineers develop a programmable 'camouflaging' material inspired by octopus skin
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:33:13 EDT
Engineers have invented stretchable surfaces with programmable 3-D texture morphing, a synthetic 'camouflaging skin' inspired by studying and modeling the real thing in octopus and cuttlefish.
Using Facebook data as a real-time census
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 12:30:40 EDT
A new study is believed to be the first to demonstrate how present-day migration statistics can be obtained by compiling the same data that advertisers use to target their audience on Facebook, and by combining that source with information from the Census Bureau.
Devourer of planets? Astronomers dub star 'Kronos'
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 12:28:32 EDT
'Kronos' is enhanced in metals and other rock-forming elements but not in volatiles, prompting a team of researchers to conclude that it absorbed as much as 15 Earth masses worth of rocky planets. Its twin, 'Krios,' does not show this unusual pattern of enhancement.
A better understanding of space, via helicopter
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 12:26:53 EDT
An algorithm that helps engineers design better helicopters may help astronomers more precisely envision the formation of planets and galaxies. Researchers have created a new model for understanding how black holes, planets, and galaxies emerge from the vortex-rich environments of space.
Reconstructing Cassini's plunge into Saturn
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 11:35:07 EDT
As NASA's Cassini spacecraft made its fateful dive into the upper atmosphere of Saturn on Sept. 15, the spacecraft was live-streaming data from eight of its science instruments, along with readings from a variety of engineering systems. While analysis of science data from the final plunge will take some time, Cassini engineers already have a pretty clear understanding of how the spacecraft itself behaved as it went in.
Rough microparticles can cause big problems
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 11:13:29 EDT
Research finds the surface texture of microparticles in a liquid suspension can cause internal friction that significantly alters the suspension's viscosity -- effectively making the liquid thicker or thinner. The finding can help address problems for companies in fields from biopharmaceuticals to chemical manufacturing.
A new miniature solution for storing renewable energy
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 10:38:10 EDT
In a first for metal-organic frameworks, scientists have demonstrated their metallic conductivity.
Carbon dioxide levels lower than thought during super greenhouse period
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 10:37:37 EDT
Researchers adds to the understanding of Earth's historic hyperthermal events to help explain the planet's current warming trend.
Experimental 'nano-chemo' particle to treat bladder cancer
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 10:37:14 EDT
Working with mice and rats, researchers have developed a way to successfully deliver nano-sized, platinum-based chemotherapy drugs to treat a form of bladder cancer called nonmuscle-invasive that is found in the lining of the organ and has not invaded deeper into bladder tissue. The tiny drug-infused particles, they say, potentially offer a less toxic clinical alternative to standard chemotherapy delivered intravenously or through a catheter inserted into the bladder.
Enzymes at work: Breaking down stubborn cellulose for biofuels
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 10:37:10 EDT
Researchers have observed enzymes breaking down cellulose to aid the production of biofuels.
Haumea, the most peculiar of Pluto companions, has a ring around it
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 09:33:50 EDT
The trans-neptunian belt contains four dwarf planets, among which Haumea stands out for its extremely elongated shape and rapid rotation. A stellar occultation makes it possible to establish the main physical characteristics of this previously little known body -- among which most surprising was the presence of a ring.
Study reveals need for better modeling of weather systems for climate prediction
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 09:15:50 EDT
A team of researchers discovered persistent dry and warm biases in the central U.S. that was caused by poor modeling of atmospheric convective systems. Their findings call for better calculations with global climate models.
Virtual humans work better than current ways to identify post-traumatic stress in soldiers
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 09:10:20 EDT
Researchers find that soldiers are more likely to open up about post-traumatic stress when interviewed by a virtual interviewer, reports a new study. Virtual interviewers can combine the rapport-building skills of human interviewers with feelings safety provided by anonymous surveys to help soldiers to reveal more about their mental health symptoms.
Electric cars can become more eco-friendly through life cycle assessment
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 09:09:59 EDT
It is time to stop discussing whether electric cars are good or bad. Instead industry, authorities and policy-makers need to work together to make them as eco-friendly as possible. One researcher now provides concrete advice and tools showing how life cycle assessment can assist in the development of electric cars.