|Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily
Sat, 23 Jun 2018 10:03:02 EDT
Repellent research: Navy developing ship coatings to reduce fuel, energy costs
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:48:12 EDT
It can repel water, oil, alcohol and even peanut butter. And it might save the US Navy millions of dollars in ship fuel costs, reduce the amount of energy that vessels consume and improve operational efficiency.
The photoelectric effect in stereo
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:48:05 EDT
In the photoelectric effect, a photon ejects an electron from a material. Researchers have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. From their results they can deduce the exact location of a photoionization event.
Uncovering lost images from the 19th century
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:47:59 EDT
Art curators will be able to recover images on daguerreotypes, the earliest form of photography that used silver plates, after a team of scientists learned how to use light to see through degradation that has occurred over time.
'Stealth' material hides hot objects from infrared eyes
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:47:52 EDT
Infrared cameras are the heat-sensing eyes that help drones find their targets even in the dead of night or through heavy fog. Hiding from such detectors could become much easier, thanks to a new cloaking material that renders objects -- and people -- practically invisible.
Estimate of 8.5 billion barrels of oil in Texas' Eagle Ford Group
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:47:33 EDT
The Eagle Ford Group of Texas contains estimated means of 8.5 billion barrels of oil, 66 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.9 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, according to a new assessment.
Low-cost plastic sensors could monitor a range of health conditions
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:47:19 EDT
An international team of researchers have developed a low-cost sensor made from semiconducting plastic that can be used to diagnose or monitor a wide range of health conditions, such as surgical complications or neurodegenerative diseases.
Biorenewable, biodegradable plastic alternative synthesized
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 17:45:03 EDT
Polymer chemists have taken another step toward a future of high-performance, biorenewable, biodegradable plastics. The team describes chemical synthesis of a polymer called bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) - or P3HB. The compound shows early promise as a substitute for petroleum plastics in major industrial uses.
What causes the sound of a dripping tap -- and how do you stop it?
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 10:47:36 EDT
Scientists have solved the riddle behind one of the most recognizable, and annoying, household sounds: the dripping tap. And crucially, they have also identified a simple solution to stop it, which most of us already have in our kitchens.
Chemists teach an enzyme a new trick, with potential for building new molecules
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 17:25:21 EDT
Chemists have found a way to make a naturally occurring enzyme take on a new, artificial role, which has significant implications for modern chemistry, including pharmaceutical production.
Coining less expensive currency: Bringing down the cost of making nickels
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 17:25:07 EDT
Cashing in on materials science, makes a new nickel for use in the U.S. Mint. The work might be useful for building durable high-tech devices like smartphones, too.
Template to create superatoms could make for better batteries
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 17:24:32 EDT
Researchers have discovered a novel strategy for creating superatoms -- combinations of atoms that can mimic the properties of more than one group of elements of the periodic table. These superatoms could be used to create new materials, including more efficient batteries and better semiconductors; a core component of microchips, transistors and most computerized devices.
US oil & gas methane emissions 60 percent higher than estimated
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 14:11:54 EDT
The US oil and gas industry emits 13 million metric tons of the potent greenhouse gas methane from its operations each year, 60 percent more than estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency, according to a new study.
Unprecedented control of polymer grids achieved
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 14:11:14 EDT
The first examples of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) were discovered in 2005, but quality has been poor and preparation methods uncontrolled. Now researchers have produced high-quality versions of these materials, demonstrate their superior properties and control their growth. The team's two-step process produces organic polymers with crystalline, two-dimensional structures. The precision of the material's structure and the empty space its hexagonal pores provide will allow scientists to design new materials with desirable properties.
Water can be very dead, electrically speaking
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 14:10:48 EDT
Water is one of the most fascinating substances on Earth and at the heart of its many unusual properties is high polarizability, a strong response to an applied electric field. Now researchers have found that on a microscopic scale water behaves very differently and its thin layers lose any polarizability, becoming electrically dead.
Einstein proved right in another galaxy
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 14:10:43 EDT
Astronomers have made the most precise test of gravity outside our own solar system. By combining data taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the researchers show that gravity in this galaxy behaves as predicted by Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, confirming the theory's validity on galactic scales.
Nearly 80 exoplanet candidates identified in record time
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 12:19:01 EDT
Scientists have analyzed data from K2, the follow-up mission to NASA's Kepler Space Telescope, and have discovered a trove of possible exoplanets amid some 50,000 stars. The scientists report the discovery of nearly 80 new planetary candidates, including a particular standout: a likely planet that orbits the star HD 73344, which would be the brightest planet host ever discovered by the K2 mission.
Engineering bacteria to exhibit stochastic Turing patterns
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 12:18:57 EDT
A new study has brought science one step closer to a molecular-level understanding of how patterns form in living tissue. The researchers engineered bacteria that, when incubated and grown, exhibited stochastic Turing patterns: a 'lawn' of synthesized bacteria in a petri dish fluoresced an irregular pattern of red polka dots on a field of green.
Major challenge in mass production of low-cost solar cells solved
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 12:18:55 EDT
A team has solved a major fabrication challenge for perovskite cells -- the intriguing potential challengers to silicon-based solar cells. The team reveals a new scalable means of applying the compound PCBM, a critical component, to perovskite cells.
'Flamingo:' High-powered microscopy coming to a scientist near you
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 12:18:19 EDT
Scientists have developed a portable, shareable light sheet microscope. The project can be mailed to a lab anywhere in the world, configured remotely by engineers, and run one to three months of experiments.
Scientists print sensors on gummi candy
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 10:14:17 EDT
Microelectrodes can be used for direct measurement of electrical signals in the brain or heart. These applications require soft materials, however. With existing methods, attaching electrodes to such materials poses significant challenges. A team has now succeeded in printing electrodes directly onto several soft substrates.
Exposure to fracking chemicals and wastewater spurs fat cell development
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 10:14:00 EDT
Exposure to fracking chemicals and wastewater promotes fat cell development, or adipogenesis, in laboratory cell models, a new study finds. Researchers observed increases in the size and number of fat cells after exposing the models to a mixture of 23 common fracking chemicals or to wastewater or surface-water samples containing them, even at diluted concentrations. Adipogenesis occurred through PPARy-dependent and independent mechanisms. More research is needed to assess potential health impacts outside the laboratory.
Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 10:13:36 EDT
Researchers have developed a graphene assembled film that has over 60 percent higher thermal conductivity than graphite film -- despite the fact that graphite simply consists of many layers of graphene. The graphene film shows great potential as a novel heat spreading material for form-factor driven electronics and other high power-driven systems.
Old star clusters could have been the birthplace of supermassive stars
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 10:10:34 EDT
Astrophysicists may have found a solution to a problem that has perplexed scientists for more than 50 years: why are the stars in globular clusters made of material different to other stars found in the Milky Way?
Ratchet up the pressure: Molecular machine exploits motion in a single direction
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 10:10:01 EDT
A research team developed a 'ratchet-like molecular machine,' which promotes uni-directional molecular motion during reactions. Inspired by dumbbell-shaped rotaxanes, their molecular machine contains two rings (stations) connected by spacers.
Many wildlife-vehicle collisions preventable
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:03:21 EDT
A new study has found that Ontario could save millions by implementing simple measures to help prevent vehicle accidents involving wildlife.
Enhanced detection of nuclear events, thanks to deep learning
Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:03:18 EDT
A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as -- and sometimes better than -- today's best automated methods or even human experts. The research probes incredibly complex data sets filled with events called radioactive decays.
Buildings as power stations work: They generate more energy than they consume, data shows
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 19:37:29 EDT
The UK's first energy-positive classroom generated more than one and a half times the energy it consumed, according to data from its first year of operation, the team has revealed. The findings were announced as the researchers launched the next phase of their research, gathering data and evidence on an office building, constructed using similar methods.
Discovery of 12-sided silica cages
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 17:10:06 EDT
Scientists report the discovery of 10-nanometer, individual, self-assembled dodecahedral structures -- 12-sided silica cages that could have applications in mesoscale material assembly, as well as medical diagnosis and therapeutics.
New 'e-dermis' brings sense of touch, pain to prosthetic hands
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 17:10:04 EDT
Engineers have created an electronic 'skin' in an effort to restore a real sense of touch for amputees using prosthetics.
Martian dust storm grows global: Curiosity captures photos of thickening haze
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 17:09:56 EDT
A storm of tiny dust particles has engulfed much of Mars over the last two weeks and prompted NASA's Opportunity rover to suspend science operations. But across the planet, NASA's Curiosity rover, which has been studying Martian soil at Gale Crater, is expected to remain largely unaffected by the dust. The Martian dust storm has grown in size and is now officially a 'planet-encircling' (or 'global') dust event.
How physics explains the evolution of social organization
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 17:09:54 EDT
A scientist says the natural evolution of social organizations into larger and more complex communities exhibiting distinct hierarchies can be predicted from the same law of physics that gives rise to tree branches and river deltas -- a concept called the constructal law.
Learning about the Himalayas using Mars technology
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 17:09:49 EDT
he Himalayan Range includes some of the youngest and most spectacular mountains on Earth, but the rugged landscape that lends it the striking beauty for which it is known can also keep scientists from fully understanding how these mountains formed.
Game-changing finding pushes 3D-printing to the molecular limit
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 16:24:30 EDT
New research proves that advanced materials containing molecules that switch states in response to environmental stimuli such as light can be fabricated using 3D printing. The study findings have the potential to vastly increase the functional capabilities of 3D-printed devices for industries such as electronics, healthcare and quantum computing.
Better model of water under extreme conditions could aid understanding of Earth's mantle
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 16:24:20 EDT
A team of scientists ran quantum simulations to develop a new model of the behavior of water at extremely high temperatures and pressures. The computational measurements should help scientists understand water's role in the makeup of the mantle and potentially in other planets.
The seed that could bring clean water to millions
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 15:02:46 EDT
Scientist are refining a process that could soon help provide clean water to many in water-scarce regions. The process uses sand and plant materials readily available in many developing nations.
Scientists calculate impact of China's ban on plastic waste imports
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 15:02:08 EDT
Scientists have calculated the potential global impact of China's ban on plastic waste imports and how this policy might affect efforts to reduce the amount of plastic waste entering the world's landfills and natural environment.
The sounds of climate change
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 15:02:03 EDT
Researchers describe a way to quickly sift through thousands of hours of field recordings to estimate when songbirds arrive at their Arctic breeding grounds. Their research could be applied to any dataset of animal vocalizations to understand how migratory animals are responding to climate change.
Gas flow through tiny atonically flat walls: Atomic-scale ping-pong
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 15:02:00 EDT
New experiments have shed more light on the gas flow through tiny, angstrom-sized channels with atomically flat walls.
Last of universe's missing ordinary matter
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 15:00:53 EDT
Researchers have helped to find the last reservoir of ordinary matter hiding in the universe.
Chameleon-inspired nanolaser changes colors
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 15:00:48 EDT
Chameleons change color by controlling the spacing among nanocrystals on their skin. The nanolaser changes color similarly -- by controlling the spacing among metal nanoparticles.
Mega-cruises are becoming copies of the great Las Vegas resorts
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 13:00:01 EDT
The productive improvements and innovations in the shipyards, which have made the mega ships possible, have made the cruise ship operators look for a leisure model that fills the abundant space that these new floating cities offer. In many of these ships, the classic model of luxury has been abandoned to copy, with great precision, the theme parks of the great casino resorts of Las Vegas.
Quantum step forward in protecting communications from hackers
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:49 EDT
Researchers have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches.
Interaction of paired and lined-up electrons can be manipulated in semiconductors
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:35 EDT
The way that electrons paired as composite particles or arranged in lines interact with each other within a semiconductor provides new design opportunities for electronics, according to recent findings.
Crumple up this keyboard and stick it in your pocket
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:26 EDT
Bendable portable keyboards for use with computers and other electronic devices are already on the market, but they have limited flexibility, and they're fairly sizable when rolled up for transport. Now researchers have crafted an inexpensive keyboard that is so tough, flexible and thin that it can be crumpled up and tucked in a pocket without damaging it.
Robot bloodhound tracks odors on the ground
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:24 EDT
Bloodhounds are famous for their ability to track scents over great distances. Now researchers have developed a modern-day bloodhound -- a robot that can rapidly detect odors from sources on the ground, such as footprints. The robot could even read a message written on the ground using odors as a barcode.
Modern laser science brightened by 2,300-year-old technology
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:18 EDT
Scientists have harnessed a 2,300-year-old water displacement technology to develop a novel laser beam that traps and moves particles in specific directions. It is a significant contribution to the future of both basic and applied science.
Possible link found between diabetes and common white pigment
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:07 EDT
In a pilot study, crystalline particles of titanium dioxide -- the most common white pigment in everyday products ranging from paint to candies -- were found in pancreas specimens with Type 2 diabetes, suggesting that exposure to the white pigment is associated with the disease.
Cooler computing through statistical physics?
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:59:00 EDT
Recent breakthroughs in nonequilibrium statistical physics have revealed opportunities to advance the 'thermodynamics of computation,' a field that could have far-reaching consequences for how we understand, and engineer, our computers.
Miniaturized infrared cameras take colored photos of the eye
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 10:06:08 EDT
Researchers report a new miniaturized camera module that can be used to diagnose the eye. The module uses three wavelengths of near infrared light to give a clear image of the fundus that matches the performance of cameras in the clinic, but is small enough to mount on top a smartphone.
Using bloodstains at crime scenes to determine age of a suspect or victim
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 09:48:35 EDT
From the spatter analysis made famous in the TV show Dexter to the frequent DNA profiling of CSI and the real cases covered in the FBI Files, blood tests are ubiquitous in forensic science. Now, researchers report that a new blood test, which could be performed at a crime scene, could help determine the age of a suspect or victim within just an hour.
Electron sandwich doubles thermoelectric performance
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 09:48:29 EDT
Researchers more than doubled the ability of a material to convert heat into electricity, which could help reduce the amount of wasted heat, and thus wasted fossil fuel, in daily activities and industries.
Controlling robots with brainwaves and hand gestures
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 09:48:04 EDT
System enables people to correct robot mistakes on multi-choice problems.
Surgery in space
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 09:48:01 EDT
With renewed public interest in manned space exploration comes the potential need to diagnose and treat medical issues encountered by future space travelers.
Chemical 'caryatids' improve the stability of metal-organic frameworks
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 09:47:52 EDT
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous materials that can change the way we capture carbon, filter water, and an array of other applications. Chemists have now found the link between mechanical stability and structure, thus overcoming a significant obstacle in optimizing MOFs.
Evaluation method for the impact of wind power fluctuation on power system quality
Wed, 20 Jun 2018 09:47:37 EDT
Abrupt changes of wind power generation output are a source of severe damage to power systems. Researchers have developed a stochastic modeling method that enables to evaluate the impact of such phenomena.
Chip upgrade helps bee-size drones navigate
Tue, 19 Jun 2018 23:08:41 EDT
The same researchers, who last year designed a tiny computer chip tailored to help honeybee-sized drones navigate, have now shrunk their chip design even further, in both size and power consumption.
Machine learning may be a game-changer for climate prediction
Tue, 19 Jun 2018 17:35:47 EDT
New research demonstrates that machine-learning techniques can be used to accurately represent clouds and their atmospheric heating and moistening, and better represent clouds in coarse resolution climate models, with the potential to narrow the range of climate prediction. This could be a major advance in accurate predictions of global warming in response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations that are essential for policy-makers (e.g. the Paris climate agreement).
New material for splitting water
Tue, 19 Jun 2018 12:31:22 EDT
Solar energy is clean and abundant, but when the sun isn't shining, you must store the energy in batteries or through a process called photocatalysis. In photocatalytic water splitting, sunlight separates water into hydrogen and oxygen, which can then be recombined in a fuel cell to release energy. Now, a new class of materials -- halide double perovskites -- may have just the right properties to split water.
Everything big data claims to know about you could be wrong
Tue, 19 Jun 2018 12:31:12 EDT
When it comes to understanding what makes people tick -- and get sick -- medical science has long assumed that the bigger the sample of human subjects, the better. But new research suggests this big-data approach may be wildly off the mark.
Warnings to texting pedestrians may not eliminate risks, but they can help
Tue, 19 Jun 2018 12:31:06 EDT
Human factors researchers have been looking at ways to harness technology to prevent fatalities among pedestrians who are struck by vehicles while texting. In their latest study, researchers simulated a busy roadway to determine whether sending loud warning sounds to cell phones when texting pedestrians attempted to cross an unsafe gap would result in safer crossing behavior.