|Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily
Fri, 23 Mar 2018 10:44:02 EDT
Analyzing past failures may boost future performance by reducing stress
Fri, 23 Mar 2018 08:48:27 EDT
A new study suggests for the first time that reflection of past failures might prepare an individual for the next challenge by changing the body's response to stress. The research team found that writing about a past failure led to lower levels of the 'stress' hormone, cortisol, better choices and better outcomes on a new stressful task. This technique may help improve performance in a variety of settings.
The brain learns completely differently than we've assumed since the 20th century
Fri, 23 Mar 2018 08:48:18 EDT
Based on experimental evidence physicists publish revolutionary new theory on brain learning that contradicts the most common assumption in neuroscience, will transform our understanding of brain function, and open new horizons for advanced deep learning algorithms.
For graphite pellets, just add elbow grease
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 18:13:41 EDT
Researchers crush and press functionalized graphene to make strong, light graphite pellets that hold promise for electronic and catalytic applications.
Using light to turn yeast into biochemical factories
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 18:13:38 EDT
Researchers have used a combination of light and genetic engineering to controlling the metabolism, or basic chemical process, of a living cell. Building on techniques that already have transformed the field of neuroscience, the researchers used light to control genetically-modified yeast and increase its output of commercially valuable chemicals.
Measurement chip detects Legionella
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 15:03:28 EDT
In an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, finding the exact source as quickly as possible is essential to preventing further infections. To date, a standard analysis takes days. Researchers have now developed a rapid test that achieves the same result in about 35 minutes.
Hubble solves cosmic 'whodunit' with interstellar forensics
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 15:02:12 EDT
On the outskirts of our galaxy, a cosmic tug-of-war is unfolding-and only NASA's Hubble Space Telescope can see who's winning.
Designing a new material for improved ultrasound
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 12:50:06 EDT
Development of a theoretical basis for ultrahigh piezoelectricity in ferroelectric materials led to a new material with twice the piezo response of any existing commercial ferroelectric ceramics, according to researchers.
Novel genomics tool enables more accurate identification of rare mutations in cancer cells
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 11:27:23 EDT
A new computational method allows scientists to identify rare gene mutations in cancer cells with greater accuracy and sensitivity than currently available approaches. The technique is called Lancet and represents a major advance in the identification of tumor cell mutations, a process known as somatic variant calling.
High-energy ions' movement affected by silicon crystal periodicity
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 11:27:08 EDT
The thinner the silicon crystal, the easier it is to manipulate the trajectories of very high-energy ions in particle accelerators. Further applications include materials analysis, semiconductor doping and beam transport in large particle accelerators. All of these rely on our understanding of how positively-charged high-energy particles move through crystals.
Generation of a stable biradical
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 11:27:06 EDT
Researchers in Germany have succeeded in twisting molecules so much that their double bonds have been completely destroyed. The result: unusually stable biradicals.
3-D printing used to create metallic glass alloys
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 11:26:51 EDT
Researchers have now demonstrated the ability to create amorphous metal, or metallic glass, alloys using 3-D printing technology, opening the door to a variety of applications -- such as more efficient electric motors, better wear-resistant materials, higher strength materials, and lighter weight structures.
Identifying the chemical forming carcinogens in recycled water
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:33:15 EDT
Engineers at wastewater recycling plants can rest easy knowing that their methods for minimizing the formation of a potent carcinogen are targeting the right chemical compound. Chemists have confirmed the chemical responsible for the formation of the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethyalmine, or NDMA, in recycled wastewater.
Scientists control molecular alignment on a graphene surface
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:33:11 EDT
Scientists have developed a simple way to align molecules in one direction on a flat graphene surface. Efficiently controlling molecular alignment is expected to lead to significant progress in surface chemistry and molecular engineering, as well as materials science.
Robust superhydrophobic films fabricated from anisotropic silica particles
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:33:09 EDT
Scientists have developed an emulsion-based one-pot synthesis of anisotropic silica by adding various silane coupling agents provides an effective strategy to control particle morphology and modification.
Electric textile lights a lamp when stretched
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:33:03 EDT
Working up a sweat from carrying a heavy load? That is when the textile works at its best. Researchers have developed a fabric that converts kinetic energy into electric power. The greater the load applied to the textile and the wetter it becomes the more electricity it generates.
Laser-based system offers continuous monitoring of leaks from oil and gas operations
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:32:59 EDT
Researchers have conducted the first field tests for a new laser-based system that could one day be used to continuously monitor for costly and dangerous methane leaks at oil and gas production sites.
Millions of Americans seek and find illicit marijuana online
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:32:33 EDT
Researchers found marijuana shopping searches nearly tripled in the United States from 2005 to 2017, peaking between 1.4 and 2.4 million searches each month. Mail-order marijuana retailers occupied half of the first-page results, and three out of every four searches resulted in a mail-order marijuana retailer as the very first suggested link.
In field tests, device harvests water from desert air
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:32:12 EDT
You really can extract clean drinking water right from the air, even in the driest of deserts, researchers have found. They've demonstrated a real-world version of a water-harvesting system based on metal organic frameworks, or MOFs, that they first described last year.
Scientists develop tiny tooth-mounted sensors that can track what you eat
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:30:58 EDT
Engineers have developed miniaturized sensors that, when mounted directly on a tooth and communicating wirelessly with a mobile device, can transmit information on glucose, salt and alcohol intake. Researchers note that future adaptations of these sensors could enable the detection and recording of a wide range of nutrients, chemicals and physiological states.
Early numeracy performance of young kids linked to specific math activities at home
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 10:30:25 EDT
New research finds links between certain math skills in young children and specific numerical activities undertaken at home with parents. The study also finds that the more parents engage in mathematical activities with their children, the higher their early numeracy performance.
Brain-like computers moving closer to cracking codes
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 17:40:01 EDT
Scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization.
How often do medical problems lead to bankruptcy?
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 17:39:55 EDT
A team of researchers has found that medical expenses account for roughly 4 percent of bankruptcy filings among nonelderly adults in the U.S.
Online tech is changing the dynamics of gift-giving
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 16:22:45 EDT
Online gift-giving is spreading in social networks and causing people to give more gifts -- online and in person -- according to a new study. About half of these gifts were unlikely to have occurred offline or via another online channel.
Live 3-D printing of osteogenic scaffolds into bone defects
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 15:53:27 EDT
Severe traumatic injuries to the cranium have been challenging to heal due to the large missing bone volume. Typically, metal or plastic implants are used. But, these implants can take a long time to be customized for fit and often take a longer than desired time to support bone fixation. This can often lead to multiple revision surgeries if the defect is not properly healed. Moreover, the tissue that adjoins the implant can improperly heal. For the effective treatment of these defects and injuries, it is necessary to reduce the time and improve the accuracy of implantable bone scaffold substitutes. Further, the microarchitecture and materials chemistry of the scaffold must enhance tissue regeneration and growth to hasten the healing process.
New artificial intelligence technique dramatically improves the quality of medical imaging
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 15:53:24 EDT
Researchers have developed a new technique based on artificial intelligence and machine learning that should enable clinicians to acquire high-quality images from limited data.
New brain scanner allows patients to move freely for the first time
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 14:51:21 EDT
A new generation of brain scanner, that can be worn like a helmet allowing patients to move naturally whilst being scanned, has been developed. It is part of a five-year Wellcome funded project which has the potential to revolutionize the world of human brain imaging.
A new angle on gerrymanders
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 14:37:15 EDT
A mathematician has developed a new tool to identify gerrymandered voting districts. The research shows Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Carolina strongly gerrymandered for Republicans, while Maryland's and California's voting districts have been strongly tipped in favor of Democrats. The new tool could be important in the wake of two Supreme Court cases now being considered that might outlaw certain partisan gerrymanders.
World's first continuous room-temperature solid-state maser built using diamond
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 14:13:48 EDT
The breakthrough means masers -- the microwave version of lasers -- could now be used more widely in a range of applications.
New design produces true lithium-air battery
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 14:13:45 EDT
Researchers have designed a new lithium-air battery that works in a natural-air environment and still functioned after a record-breaking 750 charge/discharge cycles.
Potassium gives perovskite-based solar cells an efficiency boost
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 14:10:19 EDT
A simple potassium solution could boost the efficiency of next-generation solar cells, by enabling them to convert more sunlight into electricity.
Next-gen X-ray microscopy platform now operational
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 13:08:54 EDT
COSMIC, a next-generation X-ray beamline now operating at Berkeley Lab, brings together a unique set of capabilities to measure the properties of materials at the nanoscale. It allows scientists to probe working batteries and other active chemical reactions, and to reveal new details about magnetism and correlated electronic materials.
Depth-sensing imaging system can peer through fog
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 11:08:57 EDT
In a study that holds promise for self-driving cars, researchers have developed a system that can image and gauge the distance of objects shrouded by fog so thick that human vision can't penetrate it.
The problem of jaguars and space in western Paraguay
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 11:08:29 EDT
A recent study shows how researchers used GPS technology and new analytical techniques to produce the first rigorous estimates of jaguar spatial needs and movements in the Gran Chaco and Pantanal ecosystems of Paraguay.
New valve technology promises cheaper, greener engines
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:47:56 EDT
New technology reliably and affordably increases the efficiency of internal combustion engines by more than 10 per cent. The patented system for opening and closing valves could significantly reduce fuel consumption in everything from ocean-going ships to compact cars.
Blue holes bring forgotten chemical element back on stage
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:47:51 EDT
About a third of all Swiss exports result from fundamental discoveries in synthetic chemistry. Certain drugs and perfumes, as well as food and agricultural products -- and even Ferrari's famous red color -- are derived from new molecular structures invented by Swiss scientists. Chemists have just discovered that chemical bonds based on antimony yield powerful new catalysts that can be used to accurately stimulate the transformation of a molecule from within.
Enzymetic activities based on nanocomplex sensors explored
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:47:48 EDT
Researchers compared the susceptibility of different triangle silver nanoprisms (TSNPRs) towards H2O2 and elucidated the influence of capping agents and structural size on the etching process, with the aim of optimizing TSNPRs for H2O2 etching-based biosensors, such as glucose and glucose oxidase.
Dravidian language family is approximately 4,500 years old, new linguistic analysis finds
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:09:53 EDT
The origin of the Dravidian language family, consisting of about 80 varieties spoken by 220 million people across South Asia, can be dated to about 4,500 years ago, based on new linguistic analyses. An international team used data collected first-hand from native speakers and analyzed these using cutting-edge computational methods. The findings shed light on the prehistory of these languages and their speakers.
New 4-D printer could reshape the world we live in
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:09:38 EDT
Scientists report that they have developed a powerful new printer that could streamline the creation of self-assembling structures that can change shape after being exposed to heat and other stimuli. They say this unique technology could accelerate the use of 4-D printing in aerospace, medicine and other industries.
'Wiggling and jiggling': Study explains how organisms evolve to live at different temperatures
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:08:54 EDT
New research explains how the 'wiggling and jiggling' of the atoms in enzymes -- the proteins that make biological reactions happen -- is 'choreographed' to make them work at a particular temperature. Enzyme catalysis is essential to life, and this research sheds light on how enzymes have evolved and adapted, enabling organisms to evolve to live at different temperatures.
The perfect shot of espresso every time with chemistry
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:07:26 EDT
The average American drinks more than three cups of coffee a day, contributing to a $40 billion industry in the US alone, according to the National Coffee Association. But not all coffee is created equal; flavor profiles vary. Focusing on espresso, scientists say they have now unlocked the key to creating consistent cups of java.
Make way for the mini flying machines
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:07:15 EDT
Tiny floating robots could be useful in all kinds of ways, for example, to probe the human gut for disease or to search the environment for pollutants. In a step toward such devices, researchers describe a new marriage of materials, combining ultrathin 2-D electronics with miniature particles to create microscopic machines.
Can artificial intelligence be used to study gut microbes in patients?
Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:05:34 EDT
A new article proposes that artificial intelligence tools, such as machine learning algorithms, have the potential for building predictive models for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases linked to imbalances in gut microbial communities, or microbiota.
Improving fabrication process of nano-structures for electronic devices
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 16:37:47 EDT
Researchers have found a more efficient fabricating process to produce semiconductors used in today's electronic devices. They also confirmed that materials other than silicon can be used successfully in the development process that could increase performance of electronic devices.
TRAPPIST-1 planets provide clues to the nature of habitable worlds
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 14:13:20 EDT
To determine the composition of the TRAPPIST-1 planets, the team used a unique software package that uses state-of-the-art mineral physics calculators. The software, called ExoPlex, allowed the team to combine all of the available information about the TRAPPIST-1 system, including the chemical makeup of the star, rather than being limited to just the mass and radius of individual planets.
What plants can teach us about oil spill clean-up, microfluidics
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 14:13:15 EDT
For years, scientists have been inspired by nature to innovate solutions to tricky problems, even oil spills -- manmade disasters with devastating environmental and economic consequences. A new study takes a cue from leaf structure to fabricate material that can separate oil and water, which could lead to safer and more efficient oil spill clean-up methods.
Taming chaos: Calculating probability in complex systems
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:59:09 EDT
Weather patterns, brain activity and heartbeats each generate lines of complex data. To analyze this data, researchers must first divide up this continuous data into discrete pieces -- a task difficult to perform simply and accurately. Researchers have devised a method to transform data from complex systems, reducing the amount of important information lost, while still using less computing power than existing methods.
Hydrogel may help heal diabetic ulcers
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:59:06 EDT
A hydrogel that is adept at helping the body heal may also be particularly good at treating wounds related to diabetes.
Filling lithium-ion cells faster
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:35:16 EDT
Developers are using neutrons to analyze the filling of lithium ion batteries for hybrid cars with electrolytes. Their experiments show that electrodes are wetted twice as fast in a vacuum as under normal pressure.
Researchers create microlaser that flies along hollow optical fiber
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:35:03 EDT
For the first time, researchers have optically trapped and propelled a particle-based laser for centimeters inside an optical fiber.
A star disturbed the comets of the solar system 70,000 years ago
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:34:55 EDT
About 70,000 years ago, a small reddish star approached our solar system and gravitationally disturbed comets and asteroids. Astronomers have verified that the movement of some of these objects is still marked by that stellar encounter.
Low-tech, affordable solutions to improve water quality
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 12:34:43 EDT
Clever, fundamental engineering could go a long way toward preventing waterborne illness and exposure to carcinogenic substances in water.
Obtaining energy from marine currents
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 10:24:02 EDT
Researchers have developed procedures and designs to obtain energy from marine currents in areas of great depths optimizing the costs.
Illusory motion reproduced by deep neural networks trained for prediction
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 10:08:55 EDT
Deep neural networks (DNNs), which have been developed with reference to the network structures and the operational algorithms of the brain, have achieved notable success in a broad range of fields, including computer vision, in which they have produced results comparable to, and in some cases superior to, human experts. In recent years, DNNs have also been expected to be useful as a tool for studies of the brain.
Pressing a button is more challenging than it appears
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 10:08:52 EDT
Pressing a button appears easy, but the brain needs a probabilistic internal model to control a press. A new theory exposes significant improvements to button design that help gamers and musicians.
Months-long real-time generation of a time scale based on an optical clock
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 10:08:37 EDT
Scientists have generated a real-time signal of an accurate time scale by combining an optical lattice clock and a hydrogen maser. The signal generated in this optical-microwave hybrid system continued for half a year without interruption. The resultant 'one second' deviated by 0.8 ns in half a year relative to TT(BIPM). This demonstration proves the capability to keep time with respect to the future optical definition of the second.
Ultrasound to enhance cancer drug delivery
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 08:44:20 EDT
Medical researchers are testing the use of pulsed sound waves to direct and focus cancer drug therapies.
Vegetable compound could have a key role in 'beeting' Alzheimer's disease
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 08:44:14 EDT
A compound in beets that gives the vegetable its distinctive red color could help slow the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain, a process associated with Alzheimer's disease. Scientists say this could lead to the development of drugs that could alleviate some of the long-term effects of the disease, the world's leading cause of dementia.
Making fragrances last longer
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 08:44:11 EDT
From floral perfume to fruity body wash and shampoos, scents heavily influence consumer purchases. But for most, the smell doesn't last long after showering. Scientists have now developed a way to get those fragrances to stick to the skin longer instead of washing down the drain immediately after being applied.
Smoked foods are tastier, less harmful with a tip from the auto industry
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 08:44:09 EDT
Infusing foods with smoke can impart delicious nuanced flavors, but could also come with an unwelcome side of carcinogens. To reduce the carcinogen content of smoked foods, researchers took a lesson from the automobile industry, running the smoke through a zeolite filter to remove harmful compounds. It worked, and with a happy bonus: superior smoke flavor.
'Candy cane' polymer weave could power future functional fabrics and devices
Tue, 20 Mar 2018 08:44:05 EDT
If scientists are going to deliver on the promise of implantable artificial organs or clothing that dries itself, they'll first need to solve the problem of inflexible batteries that run out of juice too quickly. Today, researchers report that they've developed a new material by weaving two polymers together in a way that increases charge storage capacity.