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|Top Technology News -- ScienceDailyMon, 22 May 2017 14:34:01 EDT
Achieving magnetic order in low-dimensional systems consisting of only one or two dimensions has been a research goal for some time. Researchers now show that magnetic order can be created in a two-dimensional chessboard lattice consisting of organometallic molecules that are only one atomic layer thick.
What can we learn about emotions, the brain and behavior from a wristband? Plenty, according to a prominent engineer.
A new process triples the fraction of biomass converted to high-value products to nearly 80 percent, also tripling the expected rate of return for an investment in the technology from roughly 10 percent (for one end product) to 30 percent.
A breathable workout suit with ventilating flaps that open and close in response to an athlete's body heat and sweat has now been developed by researchers. These flaps, which range from thumbnail- to finger-sized, are lined with live microbial cells that shrink and expand in response to changes in humidity.
Astronomers have constructed the first map of the Universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the Universe.
Computer scientists have shown a new way to help prevent users of data exploration software from making false discoveries.
A coating of lithium oxide on the inside of fusion machines known as tokamaks absorbs as much deuterium as pure lithium does, a team of physicists has discovered.
Through integration with a wearable thermometer, the Thermia online health educational tool has enabled prediction of seasonal influenza outbreaks in China one month earlier than before, according to a new study.
New research investigated the full life cycle impact of one promising 'second-generation biofuel' produced from short-rotation oak. The study found that second-generation biofuels made from managed trees and perennial grasses may provide a sustainable fuel resource.
Researchers have created self-assembling molecules which can be broken down by ultraviolet light to recombine into novel macroscopic shapes.
Athletes often have to compete late in the evening, when they are no longer able to perform at their best. However, researchers have shown that athletes who are exposed to blue light before competing can significantly increase their performance in the final spurt. The blue light had no impact on the athletes’ maximum performance.
A new paper describes a new approach to revolutionize the production of molecular hydrogen. This gas is considered to be one of the most promising energy carriers of the future.
The atomic nucleus offers a unique opportunity to study the competition between three of the four fundamental forces known to exist in nature, the strong nuclear interaction, the electromagnetic interaction and the weak nuclear interaction. Only the much weaker gravitational force is irrelevant for the description of nuclear properties. Although in general the decay of an excited nuclear state follows the hierarchy of these forces, there are sometimes exceptions.
Rare-earth-doped nanocrystals have become sought-after materials for cellular bioprobes because of their long emission lifetimes and low cytotoxicity. Researchers have now discovered how to make these probes even brighter by coupling them to gold nanorods materials that can induce field-enhanced fluorescence through surface plasmon resonances. They optimized this effect by systematically varying the thickness of a protective silica coating sandwiched between the gold nanorods and the doped nanocrystals.
The risks far outweigh the benefits for most consumers in their response to personalized online ads, known as online behavioral advertising, suggests a study. The perception of risk drives consumers to greater privacy concerns and to avoid the advertising. The ad industry may want to reconsider its approach as a result, suggests a new report.
Scientists have built high-capacity lithium metal batteries with anodes made of a graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid. The anodes quench the formation of damaging dendrites.
Using neutron crystallography, research team has mapped the three-dimensional structure of a protein that breaks down polysaccharides, such as the fibrous cellulose of grasses and woody plants, a finding that could help bring down the cost of creating biofuels.
Membranes comprised mostly of water, that self-assemble in water have now been developed by scientists. They can filter out particles based on size, and can be easily disassembled, report researchers.
Physicists have simulated the spontaneous transition of turbulence at the edge of a fusion plasma to the high-confinement mode that sustains fusion reactions. The research was achieved with the extreme-scale plasma turbulence code XGC.
Researchers have developed a novel way to determine crystal type based on optics -- by identifying the unique ways in which these crystals absorb light.
In a paper published in Science, researchers report that Titan, like Mars but unlike Earth, has not undergone any active plate tectonics in its recent past. The upheaval of mountains by plate tectonics deflects the paths that rivers take. The team found that this telltale signature was missing from river networks on Mars and Titan.
Researchers have created a smart T-shirt that monitors the wearer's respiratory rate in real time. This innovation paves the way for manufacturing clothing that could be used to diagnose respiratory illnesses or monitor people suffering from asthma, sleep apnea, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
NASA's MMS mission studies how electrons spiral and dive around the planet in a complex dance dictated by the magnetic and electric fields, and a new study revealed a bizarre new type of motion exhibited by these electrons.
Astronomers have uncovered a moon orbiting the third largest dwarf planet, 2007 OR10, in the frigid outskirts of our solar system called the Kuiper Belt.
Criticism that researchers in the psychological and brain sciences are failing to reproduce studies -- a key step in the scientific method -- may have more to do with the complexity of managing data, rather than an attempt to hide methods and results, according to researchers.
ALMA has made the first complete millimeter-wavelength image of the ring of dusty debris surrounding the young star Fomalhaut. This remarkably well-defined band of rubble and gas is likely the result of exocomets smashing together near the outer edges of a planetary system 25 light-years from Earth.
A small, thin square of an organic plastic that can detect disease markers in breath or toxins in a building's air could soon be the basis of portable, disposable sensor devices. Scientists have now demonstrated a device that monitors ammonia in breath, a sign of kidney failure.
New research into osmosis-driven behavior now provides a more granular theoretical understanding of the deterministic mechanisms, report scientists in two new papers. The first paper deconstructs the molecular mechanics of osmosis with high concentrations, and generalizes the findings to predict behavior for arbitrary concentrations. The second piece of the study then simulates via molecular modeling two key forms of osmotic flow in a broadly utilizable way.
Scientists have explored the magnetic field in upper solar atmosphere by observing the polarization of ultraviolet light with the CLASP sounding rocket experiment during its 5-minute flight in space on Sept. 3, 2015. The data show that the structures of the solar chromosphere and transition region are more complicated than expected. It is proven that ultraviolet spectropolarimetry can be used in future investigations of the magnetic fields in upper solar chromosphere and transition region.
Engineers have known for some time that calcium chloride salt, commonly used as deicer, reacts with the calcium hydroxide in concrete to form a chemical byproduct that causes roadways to crumble. A civil engineer is working on a new recipe for concrete, using cast-off products from furnaces, that can hold its own against the forces of chemical erosion.
Cool pavements can help keep cities cool, right? Yes, but according to new research many reflective pavements have some unexpected drawbacks relative to conventional pavements when considering the entire life cycle of the materials.
Growing plants and then storing the carbon dioxide they have taken up from the atmosphere is no viable option to counteract unmitigated emissions from fossil fuel burning, a new study shows. The plantations would need to be so large, they would eliminate most natural ecosystems or reduce food production if implemented as a late-regret option in the case of substantial failure to reduce emissions.
Two randomized trials that examined the effects of zinc lozenges for the duration of common cold symptoms found that colds were shortened on average by 4.0 days and by 1.77 days. However, the shortest colds in the placebo groups of both studies lasted for only two days.
The ability to assemble electronic building blocks consisting of individual molecules is an important objective in nanotechnology. An interdisciplinary research group is now significantly closer to achieving this goal. The team of researchers has successfully assembled and tested conductors and networks made up of individual, newly developed building block molecules. These could in future serve as the basis of components for optoelectronic systems, such as flexible flat screens or sensors.
Tomorrow’s computers will run on light, and gold nanoparticle chains show much promise as light conductors. Now scientists have demonstrated how tiny spots of silver could markedly reduce energy consumption in light-based computation.
Hydrogen is an alternative source of energy that can be produced from renewable sources of sunlight and water. A group of researchers has developed a photocatalyst that increases hydrogen production tenfold.
Many elements are required for making the energy system more sustainable. Among them are smart solar storage systems, smartly interconnected energy grids, and electricity-based synthetic fuels (e-fuels).
Researchers pave way towards integration of 3-D holography into electronics like smart phones, computers and TVs, with development of nano-hologram 1,000 times thinner than a human hair.
In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.
Medical researchers announced today a cross-institutional team effort to generate a functional heart valve replacement with the capacity for repair, regeneration, and growth. The team is also working towards a GMP-grade version of their customizable, scalable, and cost-effective manufacturing process that would enable deployment to a large patient population. In addition, the new heart valve would be compatible with minimally invasive procedures to serve both pediatric and adult patients.
A new technology generates cellular images detailed enough to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue. Researchers are working on speeding up the technology so it can be used during surgery, allowing surgeons to know if they have removed all the cancer while they still have time to take out more.
Engineers have combined light and sound in a microscopy technique that could allow surgeons to determine -- in the operating room -- whether a tumor has been completely removed from a cancer patient, reducing the need for follow-up surgeries.
Immunotherapy supercharges the body's own disease-fighting mechanisms to combat cancer. Researchers are using advanced computing resources to simulate the effects of immunotherapy drugs, develop novel dose-finding designs for clinical trials, and analyze and share next-generation immune protein sequence data. These efforts are helping scientists determine which immune treatments may be most effective for which patients and allowing them to design new and improved immunotherapies.
Quantum field theories are often hard to verify in experiments. Now, there is a new way of putting them to the test. Scientists have created a quantum system consisting of thousands of ultra cold atoms. By keeping them in a magnetic trap on an atom chip, this atom cloud can be used as a 'quantum simulator', which yields new insights into some of the most fundamental questions of physics.
Artificial intelligence doesn't have to be super-sophisticated to make a difference in people's lives, according to a new study. Even 'dumb AI' can help human groups.
Scientists have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. The obtained fundamental understanding of monopole dynamics may help in the future to build even closer analogues of the magnetic monopoles.
Researchers have invented new tools for decoding and controlling signalling circuits in living cells with flashes of light. In principle, any cellular circuit can now be targeted with the new method. By using this approach, the researchers discovered that major biological signalling circuits can be made to resonate when driven at their resonant frequency.
Possibly the strongest hybrid silk fibers yet have been created by scientists using all renewable resources. Combining spider silk proteins with nanocellulose from wood, the process offers a low-cost and scalable way to make bioactive materials for a wide range of medical uses.
The internet of things, artificial intelligence, networked production, smart homes – these are the magic words of digital transformation. While the big technology companies are already equipping their products and production with artificial intelligence, some medium-sized companies are not succumbing to its spell -- yet. Scientists report in a new article how they help companies implement Industry 4.0.
A research team has developed lithium-air batteries with very high electric storage capacity15 times greater than the capacity of conventional lithium-ion batteries using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an air electrode material.
Human activities, like nuclear tests and radio transmissions, have been changing near-Earth space and weather, and have created artificial radiation belts, damaged satellites and induced auroras.
Scientists have for the first time fabricated a nanomaterial made from nanoparticles of a titanium oxide compound (Ti4O7) that is characterized by an extremely large surface area, and tested it as a cathode material in lithium-sulphur batteries. The highly porous nanomaterial possesses high storage capacity that remains nearly constant over many charging cycles.
Scientists are building on the proven concept of autonomous cooperative soaring of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which enables long endurance flights of unmanned sailplanes that use the power of the Sun.
Roll-up computer screens and other flexible electronics are getting closer to reality as scientists improve upon a growing number of components that can bend and stretch. One team now reports another development that can contribute to this evolution: a low-cost conductive paper that would be easy to manufacture on a large scale.
Chemists, materials scientists and nanoengineers have created what may be the ultimate natural sunscreen. They report the development of nanoparticles that mimic the behavior of natural melanosomes, melanin-producing cell structures that protect our skin, eyes and other tissues from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation.
Transporting methane from gas wellheads to market provides multiple opportunities for this greenhouse gas to leak into the atmosphere. Now, an international team of researchers has taken the first step in converting methane directly to electricity using bacteria, in a way that could be done near the drilling sites.
A new study examining how ice forms from pure water found that the geometry of the surface that water is on can have an effect on whether or not it freezes, suggesting that surface geometry plays an important role in ice formation.
Women in Ireland and Northern Ireland acquiring medical abortion pills through online telemedicine report successful terminations with low rates of adverse effects, according to new research.
New research addresses the impact delivery trucks have on the environment by providing green solutions that keep costs down without sacrificing efficiency.
As cybersecurity experts scramble to stop another wave of ransomware and malware scams that have infected computers around the world, computer science experts are 'phishing' for reasons why these types of attacks are so successful.