|Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily
Sat, 18 Nov 2017 21:54:02 EST
Breakthrough could launch organic electronics beyond cell phone screens
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 19:07:16 EST
A new discovery points the way to more widespread use of an advanced technology generally known as organic electronics.
A photosynthetic organism's 'Water World'
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:56 EST
Following the path of radicals and being able to identify many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, expeditious and sensitive mass spectrometry, three scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms -- a strain of cyanobacteria -- to develop the first experimental map of that organism's water world.
Strain-free epitaxy of germanium film on mica
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:46 EST
Germanium was the material of choice in the early history of electronic devices, and due to its high charge carrier mobility, it's making a comeback. It's generally grown on expensive single-crystal substrates, adding another challenge to making it sustainably viable for most applications. To address this aspect, researchers demonstrate an epitaxy method that incorporates van der Waals' forces to grow germanium on mica.
Taking a spin on plasma space tornadoes with NASA observations
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:38 EST
Tornado-like swirls of space plasma create tumultuous boundaries in the near-Earth environment, letting dangerous high-energy particles slip into near Earth space, new NASA mission results show.
Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:35 EST
Researchers have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen.
New computational method provides optimized design of wind up toys
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:26 EST
A team of leading computer scientists has developed a novel computational system to aid the design and fabrication of wind-up toys, focusing on automating the intricate interior machinery responsible for the toys' wind-up motion.
Making it easier to recycle plastics
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:23 EST
Researchers report new approaches could dramatically increase the amount of plastic waste that can be successfully recycled.
Mathematician's study of 'swarmalators' could direct future science
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 14:17:13 EST
How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of a noted mathematician? As it turns out, quite prominently. Researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploration of 'swarmalators' -- their term for systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together.
To reduce risk of crashing, pick roads with wide shoulders and high speed limits
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 10:37:57 EST
A solid median, wide shoulders, minimal hills -- and a high speed limit? Researchers explore freeway features that minimize crash risk.
'Ion billiards' cue novel material synthesis method
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 10:37:51 EST
A team of researchers has developed a novel material synthesis method called proton-driven ion introduction (PDII) which utilizes a phenomenon similar to 'ion billiards.' The new method could pave the way for creating numerous new materials, thus drastically advancing materials sciences.
The future of cell culture: A new continuous bioprocess developed
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 10:37:48 EST
A revolutionary technique to allow the continuous production and collection of cells has been developed by scientists.
Hydrogen fuel from water by harnessing red and near-infrared regions of sunlight
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 10:37:42 EST
Scientists have synthesized a compound that absorbs near-infrared light to produce hydrogen from water. The compound contains three ruthenium atoms connected by an organic molecule. The absorbed light stimulates electrons to 'jump' into orbitals that do not exist in other, similar compounds. This is the first successful use of infrared light to reduce water into hydrogen, which can be used for energy conversion and storage, and other industrial purposes in a future sustainable energy society.
Solar minimum surprisingly constant
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 08:58:55 EST
Using more than half a century of observations, astronomers have discovered that the microwaves coming from the Sun at the minimums of the past five solar cycles have been the same each time, despite large differences in the maximums of the cycles.
Breakthrough discovery in diagnostic tools that can replace commonly used and fragile antibodies
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 08:58:03 EST
Experts have announced the development of polymeric materials with molecular recognition capabilities which hold the potential to outperform natural antibodies in various diagnostic applications
Evaluation of novel hybrid membranes for carbon capture
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 08:52:11 EST
Hybrid materials known as mixed matrix membranes are considered a promising approach to capture carbon dioxide and mitigate against global warming. These materials are derived from a polymer combined with porous nanoparticles. We show that materials prepared using porous organic polymers are resilient to the acidic impurities present in industrial gas streams, whereas other hybrid materials fail. This means that they can be effective in carbon capture applications where these impurities are present.
Transforming greenhouse gases: New 'supercatalyst' to recycle carbon dioxide and methane
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 08:51:56 EST
Engineers have developed a new and cost-effective catalyst to recycle two of the main causes behind climate change -- carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).
New theory rewrites opening moments of Chernobyl disaster
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 08:51:30 EST
A brand-new theory of the opening moments during the Chernobyl disaster, the most severe nuclear accident in history, based on additional analysis.
Noninvasive brain imaging shows readiness of trainees to perform operations
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 19:00:05 EST
While simulation platforms have been used to train surgeons before they enter an actual operating room (OR), few studies have evaluated how well trainees transfer those skills from the simulator to the OR. Now, a study that used noninvasive brain imaging to evaluate brain activity has found that simulator-trained medical students successfully transferred those skills to operating on cadavers and were faster than peers who had no simulator training.
A new way to store thermal energy
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 18:59:59 EST
A new phase-change material provides a way to store heat in a stable chemical form, then release it later on demand using light as a trigger.
Solar flare pulses at sun and Earth detected
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 16:29:12 EST
Two recent studies show how solar flares exhibit pulses or oscillations in the amount of energy being sent out. Such research provides new insights on the origins of these massive solar flares and the space weather they produce. This is key information as humans and robotic missions venture out into the solar system, farther and farther from Earth.
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 14:21:37 EST
Nano-'hashtags' could be the key to generating the highly sought Majorana quasiparticle, report scientists.
Computer program finds new uses for old drugs
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 14:21:34 EST
Researchers have developed a computer program to find new indications for old drugs. The computer program, called DrugPredict, matches existing data about FDA-approved drugs to diseases, and predicts potential drug efficacy. In a recent study, the researchers successfully translated DrugPredict results into the laboratory, and showed common pain medications -- like aspirin -- can kill patient-derived epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
New imaging technique peers inside living cells
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 14:21:29 EST
Called Ultrasound Bioprobe, a non-invasive approach allows researchers to view sub-cellular structures and their mechanical behavior at nanoscale resolution.
On the origins of star stuff: Shedding new light on origin of anti-matter
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 14:20:46 EST
Astronomers have used a high-altitude observatory in Mexico to better understand where gamma rays come from. More than 300 massive water tanks sit waiting at the site for cascades of particles initiated by high-energy packets of light called gamma rays -- many of which have more than a million times the energy of a dental X-ray. When these gamma rays smash into the upper atmosphere, they blast apart atoms in the air, producing a shower of particles that moves at nearly the speed of light toward the ground. When this shower reaches HAWC's tanks, it produces coordinated flashes of blue light in the water, allowing researchers to reconstruct the energy and cosmic origin of the gamma ray that kicked off the cascade.
New motion sensors a major step toward low-cost, high-performance wearable technology
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 13:28:03 EST
Researchers have developed a class of breakthrough motion sensors that could herald a near future of ubiquitous, fully integrated and affordable wearable technology.
Math gets real in strong, lightweight structures
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 13:21:26 EST
Materials scientists lead a project to turn strong, light and compressible schwarzites from theory to reality with three-dimensional printers. The resulting materials share their properties from the nano- to the macroscale.
The stacked color sensor: True colors meet minimization
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 11:42:19 EST
Red-sensitive, blue-sensitive and green-sensitive color sensors stacked on top of each other instead of being lined up in a mosaic pattern -- this principle could allow image sensors with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity to light to be created. However, up to now, the reality hasn't quite met expectations. Researchers have now developed a sensor prototype that absorbs light almost optimally -- and which is also cheap to produce.
Next-generation atomic clocks may support official timekeeping
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 11:42:13 EST
For more than a decade, a research team has been unveiling experimental next-generation atomic clocks. New simulations suggest these clocks may now be reliable and practical enough to start contributing to calibrations that support official US civilian time.
Ceria nanoparticles: It is the surface that matters
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 11:42:03 EST
Exhaust gas cleaning of passenger cars, power generation from sunlight, or water splitting: In the future, these and other applications may profit from new findings relating to ceria. Scientists have studied ceria nanoparticles with the help of probe molecules and a complex ultrahigh vacuum-infrared measurement system and obtained partly surprising new insights into their surface structure and chemical activity.
Lava or not, exoplanet 55 Cancri e likely to have atmosphere
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 11:37:43 EST
Twice as big as Earth, the super-Earth 55 Cancri e was thought to have lava flows on its surface. Now, a new analysis finds this planet likely has an atmosphere whose ingredients could be similar to those of Earth's atmosphere, but thicker.
Renaissance of the iron-air battery
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 10:50:04 EST
Iron-air batteries promise a considerably higher energy density than present-day lithium-ion batteries. Their main constituent -- iron -- is an abundant and therefore cheap material. Scientists have now successfully observed with nano-scale precision how deposits form at the iron electrode during operation.
Intervention becomes first to successfully reduce risk of dementia
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 10:49:55 EST
A computerized brain training program reduces risk of dementia 29 percent, a 10-year study concludes.
Smart, ultra-thin microfibre sensor for real-time healthcare monitoring and diagnosis
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 09:24:11 EST
A soft, flexible and stretchable microfibre sensor has been developed for real-time healthcare monitoring and diagnosis. The novel sensor is highly sensitive and ultra-thin with a diameter of a strand of human hair. It is also simple and cost-effective to mass produce.
Spinning cylinders to recreate nature's patterns
Thu, 16 Nov 2017 09:01:40 EST
A new method to create dynamic tubular structures is inspired by leaves around a stem, scales on pine cone, and viruses' tails, explain scientists.
New dye gives scientists a clearer insight into the brain
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 19:55:07 EST
Researchers have designed a new dye that can be used to observe the electrical activity of neurons in the brain and could lead to finding a new and more efficient way of treating neurological diseases.
Replace or wait? Study says swap all incandescent bulbs now, but hold on to CFLs
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 19:52:55 EST
LED light bulbs are getting cheaper and more energy efficient every year. So, does it make sense to replace less-efficient bulbs with the latest light-emitting diodes now, or should you wait for future improvements and even lower costs?
Virtual reality training may be as effective as regular therapy after stroke
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 17:56:55 EST
Using virtual reality therapy to improve arm and hand movement after a stroke is equally as effective as regular therapy, according to a study.
First transcatheter implant for diastolic heart failure successful
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:56:32 EST
A new device, proven safe and effective, has been developed to treat diastolic heart failure.
Kevlar-based artificial cartilage mimics the magic of the real thing
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:56:28 EST
The unparalleled liquid strength of cartilage, which is about 80 percent water, withstands some of the toughest forces on our bodies. Synthetic materials couldn't match it -- until "Kevlartilage" was developed.
Salt pond in Antarctica, among the saltiest waters on Earth, is fed from beneath
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:56:25 EST
One of the saltiest bodies on Earth, an analog for what water might look like on Mars, is just one piece of a larger aquifer.
What is the computational power of the universe?
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:36:40 EST
Can a close look at the universe give us solutions to problems too difficult for a computer -- even if we built a computer larger than a planet? Physicist Stephen Jordan reflects on this question in a new NIST video, along with a scientific paper that considers one particular tough problem the universe might answer.
Multiplayer video games: Skill at game and intelligence linked
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:36:31 EST
A link between young people's ability to perform well at two popular video games and high levels of intelligence has been uncovered.
Cyanobacterial studies examine cellular structure during nitrogen starvation
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 14:14:03 EST
Researchers are using neutrons to study what happens when cyanobacteria cell samples are starved for nitrogen. They are especially interested in how this process affects phycobilisomes, large antenna protein complexes in the cells that harvest light for photosynthesis.
A delicate crossing: Controller developed to open the blood-brain barrier with precision
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:52:27 EST
Researchers are investigating a way to temporarily loosen the blood-brain barrier to deliver drugs with the assistance of microbubbles. In a new advancement, they have developed a system in preclinical models that offers a finer degree of control - and, therefore, safety -- in opening the barrier.
Pluto's hydrocarbon haze keeps dwarf planet colder than expected
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:09:40 EST
The gas composition of a planet's atmosphere generally determines how much heat gets trapped in the atmosphere. For the dwarf planet Pluto, however, the predicted temperature based on the composition of its atmosphere was much higher than actual measurements taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft in 2015. A new study proposes a novel cooling mechanism controlled by haze particles to account for Pluto's frigid atmosphere.
Next step toward fusion energy
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:09:37 EST
Fusion is the process that powers the sun, and harnessing it on Earth would provide unlimited clean energy. Researchers say that constructing a fusion power plant has proven to be a daunting task because there have been no materials that could survive the grueling conditions found in the core of a fusion reactor. Now, researchers have discovered a way to make materials that may be suitable for use in future fusion reactors.
Ionic 'solar cell' could provide on-demand water desalination
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:09:34 EST
Modern solar cells, which use energy from light to generate electrons and holes that are then transported out of semiconducting materials, have existed for over 60 years. Little attention has been paid, however, to the promise of using light to drive the transport of oppositely charged protons and hydroxides obtained by dissociating water molecules. Researchers report such a design, which has promising application in producing electricity to turn brackish water drinkable.
Pine and poplar wood improve sunlight-driven water purification
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:09:31 EST
Engineers have found that porous types of wood from trees like poplar and pine can greatly increase the efficiency of water-to-steam conversion under sunlight. The findings could be used in a simple and inexpensive biodegradable device for water purification.
Volatility surprises arise in removing excess hydrogen
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:09:28 EST
Sometimes during catalytic hydrogenation, the partially hydrogenated products become volatile, melting and evaporating away before they can bind to more hydrogen atoms. Now, researchers have explored how and why this volatility varies during hydrogenation, suggesting that a previously underappreciated effect from carbon-hydrogen bonds is the main culprit. The new analysis can help chemists identify the ideal conditions needed for catalytic hydrogenation so they can better remove excess hydrogen.
Tuning the optical, photocatalytic properties of so-called carbon dots
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:08:39 EST
The optical and photocatalytic properties of so-called carbon dots can be precisely tuned by controlling the positions of nitrogen atoms introduced into their structure, physicists have demonstrated in a new study.
Hunt for dark matter is narrowed
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 12:46:23 EST
Scientists have disproved the existence of a specific type of axion -- an important candidate 'dark matter' particle -- across a wide range of its possible masses.
Three-dimensional nanomagnets for the computer of tomorrow
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 12:46:19 EST
Since the late 60's electronic devices have stored and transmitted information (bits) in two-dimensional circuits. Now, researchers have been able to break this barrier by creating a nanoscale magnetic circuit capable of moving information along the three dimensions of space. This breakthrough could lead to an important increase in storage and processing capacities of electronic devices over those used today.
Parent-supplied photos allow pediatric dermatology diagnoses with no office visit in most cases
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 12:45:32 EST
Using smartphone cameras, parents can reliably take high-quality photographs of their child's skin condition to send to a dermatologist for diagnosis. This finding suggests that direct-to-patient dermatology can accurately provide pediatric dermatology care.
Floating droplets: How droplets can 'levitate' on liquid surfaces
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 12:45:26 EST
How to levitate your coffee creamer: A study explains how droplets can 'float' on liquid surfaces.
Pulling iron out of waste printer toner
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 11:50:08 EST
Someday, left-over toner in discarded printer cartridges could have a second life as bridge or building components instead of as trash, wasting away in landfills and potentially harming the environment. A research group reports that they have devised a method to recycle the residual powder in 'empty' cartridges into iron using temperatures that are compatible with existing industrial processes.
Space missions locate whistling space electrons' origins
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 11:50:00 EST
Plasma waves in space are likely responsible for accelerating high-energy particles into Earth's atmosphere, new research shows.
Photomosaic technology finds order in chaos of coral reefs
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 10:49:13 EST
Scientists have created and analyzed detailed photomosaics of the coral reef at Palmyra Atoll using advanced imaging and digitization technology.
Counterfeits, product piracy can be prevented by security features, such as printed 3-D microstructures
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 10:48:22 EST
Security features are to protect bank notes, documents, and branded products against counterfeiting. Now researchers propose to use printed 3-D microstructures instead of 2-D structures, such as holograms, to improve counterfeit protection.
Listening for gravitational waves using pulsars
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 09:25:21 EST
When galaxies collide, their central black holes tend to spiral toward each other, releasing gravitational waves in their cosmic dance. To explore this uncharted area of gravitational wave science, researchers look a natural experiment in the sky called a pulsar timing array. Pulsars are dense remnants of dead stars that regularly emit beams of radio waves, which is why some call them "cosmic lighthouses."
3D microprinting counterfeit protection for products, passports, and money
Wed, 15 Nov 2017 09:24:05 EST
Security features are to protect bank notes, documents, and branded products against counterfeiting. Losses caused by product forgery and counterfeiting may be enormous. Researchers now propose to use printed 3D microstructures instead of 2D structures, such as holograms, to improve counterfeit protection.